What Is The Future of Welding?

It seems as though there is a great deal of questions these days about the future of not only the American economy but the global economy as well. As everyone knows there has been entire countries like Greece in 2009 that went bankrupt. My goodness, and entire country folded up financially. These are dire times we live in with a seemingly gloomy future.

The below link is a good read that gives what I feel are viable ideas of how the future of the metal trades industries will go.

It makes sense to me that lighter materials will be favored as much as possible. It also makes treat sense that the automation field of welding will be a place to look for work. With shielded metals causing a great deal of smoke and particulate pollution, it seems as though the MIG, and TIG fields of welding process may make a strong push for the future. One thing I would present to you about this question is to keep in mind all the pipeline and plant work that will always need someone to at least man the automation if not weld the entire process out manually.

We saw the age of riveting fade off the seen and give way to better processes like bolting and welding. When it comes to high pressure lines and piping I personally don’t see getting totally around human efforts to make the connections happen.

I have done orbital welding and used machinery to actually do the welding but I still collected a check while setting up and operating the equipment that may have replaced one or two people.

Anyway, the bottom line is this: there is going to be a growing need for people to take up the craft of welding so the main structure of our world can be glued together by someone that knows how to welding and fabricate.



New Web Design Up

Just a note to let you know I redesigned my website and it is finally up and finished. Thanks for all your support and help.


Using Proper Grinding Techniques

One might think this material really doesn’t need explaining but you would be astonished if you had seen people over time, destroy the work piece as I have seem them do.

First let’s establish what we are grinding for the purpose of this article. I want to focus on anything metal. Plate, pipe, iron, stainless, metal of any kind. I had the privilege of working with some of the most skilled fitters over the last quarter century. I was fortunate enough to pick up on their skills that helped me in my own career as a welder.

One of the things I learned early on was to use the proper tool for the job at hand. There is no need to use a seven inch grinder for a one inch pipe. Of course, that is an extreme example but proves the point.

When grinding there is not only proper tool consideration but also safety elements to ponder. Let us consider first the proper tool for the job.

There are air grinders as well as electric grinders. Most situations will call for right angle electric grinders that work off of alternating current (ac). This is the common household or construction type grinder that is purchased from most hardware stores all over America. I can not speak for countries outside of the United States. For normal service a four and a half inch electric model will be adequate. The next size up is a five inch that is designed for more industrial type service. After this is the six inch, 7″ and the 9″. A great all purpose grinder that can handle both light and heavy applications is the 5″ Makita model. I personally owned two Makita 5″ and modified the safety guard so it would fit a 7″ wheel.
The reason for this modification was for better coverage when grinding and longer lasting wheel life.

Now Makita makes a 6″ and a 7″ grinder but at the time I bought mine they did not offer those sizes. When working with metal the size of the work piece has impact on deciding what tool to use.

When grinding for speed to move through hardened materials or materials that are relatively thick, it is best to choose a wheel that can hold up to severe load requirement. Usually a grinding wheel with a thickness of quarter inch is suitable.

When grinding on materials that are non hardened and not over 3/8″ thick, I would prefer a 1/8″ thick wheel. The lighter thickness wheel is easier to control as well. This wheel is perfect for surfacing a bevel on a pipe material, whether hardened or not. When I say hardened I am referring to metal such as stainless materials.

Technique in grinding is extremely important when approaching the actual application of the grinder as it comes in contact with the material. When using the right angle grinder the wheel should not dig into the work piece when making contact unless a groove cut is desired. The ideal contact point on the grinding wheel is about an 1/8″ of an inch back from the edge of the wheel. This can not be accomplished when digging the edge of the wheel into the work element. The wheel therefore must be laid more flat to the surface of the work piece. Laying the wheel surface to the work in this way will allow for more control and transition in the actual grinding.

When grinding on a round surface such as pipe, it is better to go even further in on the grinding wheel toward the center of the wheel. This will ensure better control over a bevel approach. Keeping the wheel slightly inclined on the surface of the pipe until the desired bevel angle is achieved.
When working with pipe, this beveling approach will give a more factory type surface when grinding as if a machine put on the pipe bevel edge. Moving the wrists from side to side or front to back keeping the proper angel of the grinding wheel will give a better overall finished surface. Most of the time an experienced worker will have access to torch beveling machines that can cut the initial bevel before grinding.
When cleaning up this type of cut on the pipe there is no need to really work the bevel since it has been cut into the surface of the material. When cutting on plate or pipe that is not beveled more work will be needed.

Inside of the pipe has a different type of grinding abrasive that is used called a cone rock. We will save that for another article. Be careful as you near the portion of the bevel where the outside of the pipe surface is reached as to not dig into the outer pipe surface reducing the size of the outer dimension of the pipe. Take your time and do the job correctly the first time.

Please bear in mind that safety glasses, grinding shields, ear plugs, and guards are all put in place with the purpose of protecting the eyes, ears, and face from dangerous metal shavings that can run the individual for a lifetime of hurt in a moment of time.

Check out DVDs that demonstrate the techniques in my articles at http://www.thewelderslens.com

The Master Welder

Recently, I viewed some welding information concerning the jobs that presently exist for the field of welding. I was amazed at the vast array of opportunity that is there for the taking. I looked at one particular add I have based this article on.

The add was looking for what was deemed the master welder. Just that term is intriguing and what ideas that term would paint in the mind. Think about that for a minute. The Master Welder. I like that term. If you are an aspiring welder or a person that has achieved expert status, you probably like that term too. Let me give you some ideas based upon the ad what the master welder qualifications are as viewed by the company that posted the ad.

First qualification was that the Master Welder needed to make welds with no imperfections and free of defects. Able to pass various tests in multiple processes in non-destructive weld testing. Here is a kicker. The Master Welder must also be a journeyman fitter. Now, there is a difference between a fitter and fabricator. It is good to know about both of these skills. Must be able to produce welds in a timely manner while safely following the company procedures.

Must be able to read blue prints with no supervision. The Master Welder must be able to assist other welders under him. A consistent failure rate of less than five percent on magna flux testing and less than ten percent (x-ray testing. At least five years experience in trade.

Knowledge of work methods for shop environment. Steel Toe boots approved by company, safety glasses, and hearing protection must be worn at work. Good team work skills a must. Must be motivated to work without supervision.

Now there are some tool requirements as well that the Master Welder must have in his possession. Tape Measure, 12” Adjustable Wrench, 12” Torpedo Level,24” Level, Combination Square,Center Finder, Framing Square, Angle Finder, Diagonal Wire Cutters, Miscellaneous Screw Drivers (Flat & Phillips), Slip Joint Pliers, Torch Striker.

That actually is not that much for a Master Welder to have in his possession. I was thinking there would have been much more. Of course, there was no pay scale mentioned but for that area of the U.S.A. I am guessing the rate would be in the upper 20s to lower 30s. The Master Welder is an all around hand. He can do just about anything.

Where do you fit in this plan? Are you looking to qualify your skills so you can be the master welder? That position opens a huge world of opportunity to a welder.

If you liked this post then please visit my website at http://www.thewelderslens.com for more information and receive a gift just for visiting.

Thanks and Take Care.

Choosing a Welding Hood

There are so many choices concerning the contemporary welding hood. Really, when it comes down to it, it is not so much the hood itself but the lens you will see through. There are multiple makers of welding lenses today. Some of those lenses are solid glass, some of those lenses are plastic, some are glass with coverings on the glass. Some lenses have a green tint, some have a gold tint, some have a maroon tint and so on. The variations of lenses also come with variable pricing as well.

Welding hoods are also composed of various materials causing the actual to have different weights as well. Let me deliver to you the helmets that I believe are the best for each different situation and why as we dig into this subject. The solid glass of old is still the best for working with TIG welding. Due to the nature of the welding arc being obscured from time to time by the movement of the cup, the lens has a tendency to flash on and off. This is not so much damaging as it is a nuisance to the vision of the welder. There are some hoods that proclaim the ability to stay darkened even under the environment that TIG welding of MIG welding produces.

Let me tell you from my professional experience as a long time TIG welder, that when you use some of the advanced techniques that an expert welder uses, an auto darkening lens is not the best choice. I always find myself going back to the solid filter glass of a fixed shade. I personally like the # 10 shade. You will have to experiment for your own preference when it comes to the shade of your choice and what works best for you.

I try to use the auto darkening lenses as much as possible, especially when using stick rod processes. I welded on jobs where one simple accidental arc strike outside of the weld zone got you run off if detected by the welding inspector. Using a quick change lens can save you from an embarrassing and costly situation like that. Let’s look at the solid lens first. Solid Lenses have been around since the time of torch and brazing were used. It was not the protective hood that was a staple of the mechanic/welder but the goggles and his lenses used to get a better picture of his puddle in the days of brazing and oxygen gas welding. The solid lens is cheap and efficient.

It is not fancy but still very effective. I still find myself going back to the solid lens for certain welding processes. It works well with any basic hood and can be a good place to start for the inexperienced welder. Better yet, the welder that does not have much money when getting started. The shades of fixed lenses usually range from 9 to 12. There are some 5 and 8 shades but I would not recommend using anything less than a 10 when welding high voltage electricity.

You may not feel the immediate affect of the damage that can be caused by using the lighter shades of lenses, but the damage is being done and will catch up with you much later in life. Please take that seriously. One of the very popular fixed shade lenses of all time has to be the gold plated lens. You find a difference in the visuals of the puddle when comparing the different lenses. The gold lens appears somewhat gold and orange in nature. The old green style appear as just that, greenish blue. There are solid lenses designed for exotic metals like aluminum that are somewhat different than the nominal carbon series.

You don’t have to have one of these but I tell you just to inform you. I have a lens still today that is a plastic lens that has a gold laminate covering but the puddle does not appear gold, it appears maroon colored. The only problem with it, it is not bright like the normal shade 10. It appears along the lines of a shade 11. Auto darkening lenses have almost replaced the solid lenses of old. I prefer the quick change lens for most welding applications. Whether the solar powered or battery charged will be your choice as well. The solar lens is usually less expensive and does not need a larger hood for its housing. The one drawback with this lens is its ability to move from one shade to another. Most of the solar powered lenses are fixed shades as well.

If you find a lens like the Radnor that poses as a dual shade filter, you will find the viewing is not consistent across the entire lens. What I mean by this is that there will appear to be some spots from the center out to the sides of the lens that are designed to lighten giving the shade variable darkness. If you like looking out of the side of your head to weld, in order to achieve the shade 10 area then this lens might be for you. I never like that. Years ago Huntsman made a solar powered quick change lens that was I believe the best ever. It is not the same as the Solera, which they make today. I have never found an adequate replacement and I have searched. The next stage of auto darkening lenses are the battery powered variable shades. These lenses also allow sensitivity and reaction time as well (usually). In today’s market place there is a very competitive field of auto darkening platform and the producers of these hoods.

Optera, Speedglas, Jackson, Huntsman, Miller, Lincoln, Hobart, Sellstrom, and there are the Foreign markets too. These helmets are all good and have similar pricing in this competitive market. If you can afford one of these hoods, one of most remarkable lenses ever produced is the 3M Speedlgas. It has one of if not the most consistent shades of all the quick change lenses. The glass at any shade is smooth and high quality all the way across the lens. I personally have favored it over the Jackson line of the NexGen models along with all other offers.

TIG Welding 101

It is like a rising superstar in this day in which we live. The art of TIG welding has been around for some time but is becoming an ever popular application for welding.

It is drawing upon the curious side of someone already interested in the field of welding. TIG welding is a very unique form of welding. When you begin to use the left and right hand simultaneously in any process there is more stress involved to the welder and this technique requires more agility than does the more common practices of welding.

When you embark upon a career in TIG welding there are normally pre-requisites that have already been achieved by the time you arrive in the TIG domain. Stick welding is normally a foundation before a welder steps into the world of TIG.

Rarely does the TIG process stand alone. There are places that you find the MIG and TIG process alone but those areas do not entail the vast majority. Some places you may see just the TIG would be the Aero-Space Industry, lightweight bicycles, hospital equipment, dairy production, etc. For the most part, the TIG process will find you in the Petro-Chemical Industry, Chemical Refining, and the Fossil Fuel Industry. Power plants, refineries, chemical plants and the likes is actually the place that the biggest money is made as well as the pipeline; which used to be downhill stick only and reserved for the welder with the big head and the rig truck he worshipped as a god.

Things have come a long was needless to say. The welder in general used to have an upper-hand in his craft but not so any more. Most people in these industries look at the welder in general as a cry baby and whiner who is always looking for the ideal conditions in which to perform his operation.

But! The TIG welder is someone that is still in high demand and carries some prestige connected to his ability to be ambidextrous. The TIG hand can weld stick, MIG, TIG usually whether it is carbon or alloy metals.

The further the welder can move into the realm of the exotic, the more in demand he becomes. The more certifications he can obtain, the more in need he will find himself (or herself). The bad part about the area of TIG welding that we are talking about at this stage is the different environments that go with this type of welding. The already mentioned places that usually call for this type of welding are not the most pleasant places to work.

These type of environments eventually take a toll upon the body of the individual. It is not easy to sustain good optimal health in fume and particulate saturated environments. Toxins and poisons are present. Elevated structures with scaffolding enclosed by fire retardant blanket. Noise levels that can and most of the time due require hearing protection.

Come to think about it, the bike factory is becoming more appealing all the the time. LOL!

Actually, a good TIG hand that is respected in his trade can call the shots. He sizes up the fit on pipe and if it isn’t correct he shoots it down, because once he starts welding on it he has taken the responsibility in saying I can make it happen. A good TIG welder can make a bad fitter look good. Or take a bad fit and turn the fabricators heartburn into Rolaids to the rescue.

An older man that has become well versed in his trade is widely respected by his peers when he becomes known as the TIG daddy, the man, the khaki daddy, etc. There are up and coming young men that are always following in the footsteps of the well accomplished mentor TIG welder.

TIG comes with a few essential items that must be recognized. Clean clothes every morning with starched shirts and a nice skull cap. A bandanna in the back pocket. A bandanna around the neck like a businessman would wear a tie to the office. Fairly new looking gloves that are not your run of the mill leather.

TIG welding requires sensitivity in the fingertips and hands. Most of the time a good TIG hand has cash in his wallet and is on top of his game. The problem we see with that in our economy is that he has to travel a bit more than he would like to keep that going. The benefit of that is that he will always have a job because of his skills. You see the TIG welder is selling his skill.

He doesn’t produce a product so to speak. His arsenal of tools contain his favorite hood or two, small hand tools that are used to accent his skill. Sharp tungsten stored in his tool bag or bucket. Files, die grinders, small wrenches, flapper wheels, emory cloth, filler rod, a coffee thermos (very important), extra gloves and lenses if needed, and possibly some small fit up wedges or flat head screwdrivers.

In our next article we will look at the actual components of his equipment for a further breakdown in lesson TIG 102. Until then, thanks for your time and take care!

What Machine Would I Choose?

I am often asked the question, which machine should I buy? This is a tough question.

One thing that is narrowing the choice of the buyer is the fact that top brand name machines are extremely expensive today. I was amazed at the recent prices that some of the name brand companies were charging for their equipment.

It seems that the metal trades industry has jumped into the stratosphere lately with the increase in demand for metal products and the people that work in those fields.

I purchased a Lincoln 185 (single phase transformer) multipurpose machine three years ago that still had two years left on the original warranty when I bought it for $1500. Today this machine is still running like it did when I bought it. It is an inverter single phase machine that runs off a 50 amp breaker that uses a three prong 220 volt receptacle and is AC/DC Stick/TIG/Aluminum.

The replacement machine that was out there today is either a 160 amp or a 225/205 amp stick/mig combo. They don’t make the 185 anymore and come to find out you can’t get the 225 by itself, you have to go up to the 275. Why I don’t know. You can buy a 225 combo Stick/MIG in that range for more money. The 160 in my opinion is a bit low if you are a serious welder. The 225/275 is more than enough for the average individual even in most shop or industrial settings.

To my amazement, the 275 amp machine by the same company mentioned above is anywhere from $2500 and up depending when and where you buy. Wow!! That hurts. This is leading me to my point of people having no choice but to get away from the big name brand companies.

There are names popping up in the market place that would not even have been a thought when it came to purchasing a reliable machine in times past but that has changed. For the common man these off brand machines are the risk most will have to take due to the price crunch in our economy.

So let’s just mention some of these off brand machines. Please understand that The Welders Lens does not promote equipment and this is just an article to expose what was already covered with an insight to where you could go for help in these very hard times.

Here are some names you might try when looking for an inverter machine. Please understand again, I am not promoting any of these brands or their products, this is simply researched information that might serve as a starting point for someone looking for help in this area: Arcon, Lincoln, Miller, Thermal Dynamics, Workhorse, Northern Industrial,Fronius,Kemppi, Migatronic,ESAB, EWM, just to name a few.

Now let me just finish this article by giving an unconventional means to an end. If you are not in need of inverter technology and work with single phase transformer (which is fine for even the serious welder) you may consider trying this method that worked from old and will surely work still today.

You can buy a good reliable name brand machine that is dependable that comes with a 3 year warranty like Lincoln or Miller and use it for TIG as well as Stick if you don’t need the aluminum aspect of a TIG combo unit. You don’t have to have a fancy foot pedal if you can weld with scratch TIG on one heat setting too.

You can buy a less expensive stick rod machine and use it for TIG. The thing these days with the push for inverter technology and TIG designed machines is the mentality of using less energy and becoming light weight as well as giving a more stable arc upon start. Stick machines worked just fine when I was welding and passed many an x-ray with those big bulky machines.

When welding TIG all you have to do is buy a gas block with an ear for placing the jaws of a electrode holder on the gas block for your current and run the conventional TIG rig. The argon hose plugs into the gas block and the jaws clamp on the gas block and away you go. Just don’t forget you will need a machine that you can either swap the leads over either by moving the cable connectors or a switch on the machine. Just something to consider.

A good name brand stick machine goes for about $650. Much easier on the pocket. Now if you need square-wave for aluminum, that is a different story. Anyway, I hope this might help someone gain a foothold on this seemingly ever growing economical question.

What machine would I purchase? I personally would stick with the name brand if possible, check all reviews and comments on non name brand, and get the best warranty available if you do buy an off brand product. Warranty work is not something we ever plan on, but what if? Take care for now and thanks for your time.

Why You Would Want to Walk The Cup

Upon my recent video submissions concerning the TIG welding, there have arisen some statements from some in the welding community with both a negative and a positive response to this matter.

I will say that there has been a more positive response than a negative reaction to the teaching on this subject. I wanted to produce this article to clear up some misconceptions about walking the cup with the TIG method I and many others teach as well as use.

You are probably familiar with TIG welding, and maybe you are not. TIG welding is made up of the electrode, current, filler material, and the electrode holder such as any other welding procedure.

The makeup of the holder for TIG is very unique. The electrode consists of some type of Tungsten. Tungsten is the means by which the electric current is carried to the metals that will be fused together.

There is also the gas lens and cup that is really what I want to focus on in this article. We can really look at this with the MIG process as well and may do so in another article in the future. So we have the electricity and the gas that is blended together in this process.

All this action is delivered to the weld area by the Cup.

The cup imparts a very important role in the way it is designed. I know what your thinking, what does this have to do with walking the cup? We are almost to that. First the cup is made of ceramic.

Ceramic construction allows the cup to sustain critical temperatures without failing in such conditions. The cup is also round for one reason and one reason specifically.

Welders that shun walking the cup do so because they either don’t understand this or they do not use this technique. Either way this is a great application that should be taken into consideration by every TIG welder.

Let me convey this truth to you as the reader of this article.

The Cup is round for a reason. It is not square. It is not elliptical. It is not rectangular or triangular. It is circular and this by design is why we can and should walk the cup when possible.

Now there are some times when you will not want to or be able to walk the cup. Certainly this is true. Then there are times when you will want to walk the cup. If you can retain what I am about to tell you and practice it you will benefit greatly in you skill and circles of influence.

Let’s look at some points.

First the pipe can get extremely hot, as I am sure you are aware, and if you as the welder are not careful you can burn your rig hand fingers. This is the hand you use to operate the welding rig.

Secondly there will be occasions when you as the welder can cover more ground by walking the cup than by manipulating the weld puddle by hand alone.

These two factors are probably the most prevalent reasons walking the cup can be a huge advantage. I personally have worked for companies that shy away from the stick welding process and rely solely on TIG.

These companies use TIG from start to finish in their procedure. Yes even on the cap of the weld. When you cap a weld with TIG, the material is usually screaming hot by that point and it almost impossible to touch the metal with your fingers or hand. Sometimes you can use what is known as the hobo or whino finger.

This is using a cup to cover your finger that rests on the pipe but it is not the easiest method but does come in handy. Walking the cup takes care of all the burns and inconvenient problems a TIG welder can face once he or she learns this method.

This is the reason the cup is circular and designed like it is.

Friend if you don’t agree with me on this that is fine but that doesn’t take away from this truth. If you don’t ever use this method that is fine too, but don’t brow beat a welder that can step into this arena and turn out some killer welds produced by this method. Well I hope this helps somebody, and it will if you can embrace this method and add it to your arsenal of welding technique you may already possess.

Thanks and God Bless!

Response to Emails!

Just a big thank you to all that have responded to the emails.

I really, really appreciate it.

Got some videos coming at you that you haven’t seen yet. 

Tig is going very well and I am almost finished. 

The videos being sent out at this time are the last of the crud trap series we did a couple of months ago.

After the tig will be some mig on pipe.

If you can weld pipe than plate is a breeze.

The plan after that is some more stick to finish out this portion of the course and then we will do 

some exotic metals like stainless.

The Email Transmissions List

Click on comments and leave your post. Thank You

Posted comments about one on one training

This is the post related to the email that you should have gotten about the up and coming TIG

videos I will be doing this week but getting a late start. 

If you got the message and thought of anything you would like to see or hear and also the response to the One on One training possibilities then here is the place to drop a line for the welding home study course from The Welders Lens.

We just finished the crud trap stick welding series and I have a few videos left to publish on the downhill

application with the fast freeze rod 6010 5 p+

Hope you are benefitting from this welding course.

With what you can learn you can weld for fun or weld for money.

I have made a good living welding.

Thanks again Michael.

P.S. If you are a negative person and don’t care for what I am doing, please don’t leave some nasty comment or degrading comment like a few people have done. Just don’t say anything. Thank You!

May the Lord Jesus Christ give you your just recompense of reward who ever you are for what you have or haven’t done.

How to determine what to do when the weld goes bad!!

Someone asked me how I know what to do when the weld takes a turn for the worst? Really after years of experience and teaching you learn to train your eyes and mind of what problem areas of a weld look like.

That is the benefit of this course. I can relay to you the benefits you can receive from my years of painful mistakes and errors I have learned not only from my own mistakes but the mistakes of those around me.

One of the videos recently published from the crud trap series showed my weld gap opening up and the metal running the risk of falling in on the bevel creating what is technically called excess penetration.

Excess penetration is caused from pushing too much metal to the interior surfaces on the inside of the pipe. This is usually caused from staying too long in one spot while welding. The combination of too large a gap and high heat can also attribute to excess penetration.

It is almost a guarantee that young welders at some point will face this common problem. 

The way around this is to try your best to evenly match the pipe bevels and the interior surfaces of the pipe.

An even gap all the way around the pipe makes life a lot easier. 

The problem I faced in the video you saw on the crud trap series was a hand beveled pipe surface.

The hand beveling is almost always inferior to the factory or machine bevel. When two factory bevels are matched the gap is consistently matched and makes the weld path more uniform. 

Because of this the heat range won’t need to be adjusted as with an uneven hand bevel. 

What happened to me on the crud trap is that the gap was inconsistent leading to my keyhole opening up to much and the high heat became my enemy. The keyhole opened up and the edge of the pipe was burning up before I could deposit metal. 

When this happens if you don’t stop immediately and make some type of adjustment more than likely you will do a few of these things if not possibly all of them.

1. Burn the pipe bevel up and open up the gap

2. Leave excess metal in the weld path because you stay in the big gap too long trying to fill the crater

3. Lose the keyhole you had to the canyon that is created.

4. Draw back the rod while still welding because the heat is too much to handle now and by doing that you      may not penetrate the weld and leave undercut on the interior of the pipe surfaces.

Either way it goes the thing to do is stop welding. You can change the heat slightly bringing the amps down usually 5 to 10 amps depending upon your skill and the problem. Maybe more, maybe less.

Stop welding and let the pipe cool off. Don’t push the rod into the bevel as much and begin to butter it around skipping over the bevel more causing less penetration.

The only way to be certain about what you do on the inside of the pipe is to make slight adjustments, weld a little, then look inside the pipe with a flashlight to see what you are doing. Hopefully if the pipe is not completely closed you may be able to look through the bevel to see the interior weld. You may also be able to see the interior weld with a mirror and light from the outside if the pipe piece is not to long or closed up.

When the gap opens up grind as little as possible. The last thing you want to do is take away more of the bevel now. If the pipe is glowing red where you can see it after pulling out of the keyhole and the keyhole appears to grow then let it cool and turn down the heat.

I hope this all makes sense. If it doesn’t you know I will try to clarify it or come at it from a different angle.

Leave a comment and let’s talk further. Until then. Stay behind The Welders Lens.